Tag Archives: Acre

The Historical Siege of Acre in 1291

Here is another historical battle history and about a battle between the Mamluk and the Crusaders in Acre. In those times, the Mamluk conquered large chunks of the Holy Land, sacked Jerusalem and was numerically speaking superior to the Crusaders. The last remaining military presence of the Crusaders was in the heavily fortified Acre! And as you can read here, beheadings are not an invention from ISIS, but it was a normal practice in those times already.

This is history and it had its impact. This was the effort from the Crusaders to stay in the Holy Land and at the end it failed, despite all their efforts. This had a large impact for 2 centuries on the Holy Land, because the land was totally dominated and harshly ruled by the Muslims. But this defeat had also an political and economical impact on the countries in Western Europe, especially England, France, Germany and the Vatican.

Such stories are part of the collection of stories from the guide in tours of Acre. If the group is interested in the juicy battle-stories, he or she will show you where and what in Acre itself.

Before continuing, an explanation what a Mamluk actually is. A Mamluk is a slave soldier, a member of one of the armies of slaves that won political control of several Muslim states during the Middle Ages. The name is derived from an Arabic word for slave. The use of Mamluk as a major component of Muslim armies became a distinct feature of Islamic civilization as early as the 9th century. But in 1249, the Mamluks took charge of their oppressors and ruled Egypt and Syria for more then 250 years.

Frank Soldier
Frank Soldier
Mamluk
Mamluk

The Mamluk generals  recognized that the city of Acre – the last stronghold of the Franks (the term Frank was used in the east as a synonym for western European, as the Franks were then rulers of most of Western Europe, originally coming from Germany) in Israel, heavily fortified, with two lines of walls and numerous towers, and densely garrisoned–would be no easy target. The Muslim operation, therefore, was planned with great care and forethought.

Mamluk strategy was founded on two principles:

Mamluk Cavalry
Mamluk Cavalry
  1. Overwhelming numerical superiority, with tens of thousands of mamluk cavalry assisted by squadrons of infantry and specialist teams of sappers;
  2. And the deployment of the extraordinary arsenal of siege machinery built up since the days of Sultan Baybars (Baibars was from Turk origin, referring to the Father of Conquests, pointing to his victories, was the fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty).
Trebuchet
Trebuchet

In the last days of winter 1291, Khalil ordered around one hundred ballistic engines to be brought to Acre from across the Mamluk Levant. Some of these weapons truly were monstrous in scale and power.

Abu’l Fida
Abu’l Fida

Abu’l Fida was in the siege train of a hundred ox-drawn wagons transporting the pieces of one massive trebuchet nicknamed ‘Victorious’ from Krak des Chevaliers. He complained that, marching through rain and snow, the heavily laden column took a month to cover a distance that was usually an eight-day ride.

On 5 April 1291 Sultan Khalil’s troops encircled Acre from the north shore above Montmusard to the coast south-east of the harbor, and the siege began. At this point, the city contained many members of the Military Orders–including the masters of the Temple and Hospital–and, in time, the severity of the threat now posed to Acre brought other reinforcements by sea,

King Henry II
King Henry II

among them King Henry II (titular monarch of Jerusalem) with 200 knights and 500 infantry from Cyprus. Even so, the Christians were hopelessly outnumbered.

Khalil set about the task of crushing Acre with methodical determination. With his forces ranged in a rough semi-circle around the city, an aerial barrage began. The largest trebuchets, like ‘Victorious’ and another known as ‘Furious’, had been reassembled and were now pummeling Acre’s battlements with massive boulders.

Meanwhile, scores of smaller ballistic devices and squads of archers were deployed behind siege screens to shower the Franks with missiles. Mammoth in scale, unremitting in its intensity, this bombardment was unlike anything yet witnessed in the field of crusader warfare.

Teams of Mamluk troopers worked in four carefully coordinated shifts, through day and night. And, each day, Khalil ordered his forces to make a short forward advance–gradually tightening the noose around Acre, until they reached its outer fosse.

Eyewitness Latin testimony suggests that, as these efforts proceeded apace, possible terms of surrender were discussed. The sultan apparently offered to allow the Christians to depart with their movable property, so long as the city was left undamaged. But the Frankish envoys are said to have refused, concerned at the dishonor that would be suffered by King Henry through such an absolute concession of defeat.

As the Mamluks pounded Acre, Templars made some vain attempts to launch counter-attacks. Stationed on the northern shore, Abu’l Fida described how ‘a Latin ship came up with a catapult mounted on it that battered us and our tents from the sea’.

Trebuchet The Furious
Trebuchet The Furious

William, master of the Templars, and Otho of Grandson also tried to prosecute a bold night-time sortie, hoping to wreak havoc within the enemy camp and torch one of the massive Mamluk trebuchets. The raid went awry when some of the Christians tripped over the guy ropes of the Muslim tents, raising a commotion.

A bold night-time sortie
A bold night-time sortie

Thus alerted, scores of Mamluks rushed into the fray, routing the Franks and slaying eighteen knights. One unfortunate Latin ‘fell into the latrine trench of one of the emir’s detachments and was killed’. The next morning, the Muslims proudly presented the heads of their vanquished foes to the sultan.

By 8 May, Khalil’s inexorable advance had brought the Mamluk lines close enough to the city for sappers to be deployed on the outer walls. They quickly turned Acre’s advanced sewerage system to their advantage, using outflows to start their tunnels.

Third Crusaders’ siege of Acre in 1191
Third Crusaders’ siege of Acre in 1191

Just as in the Third Crusaders’ siege of Acre in 1191, the work of undermining was focused particularly upon the city’s north-eastern corner, but with Acre now protected by double walls there were two lines of defense to breach. The first collapsed at the Tower of the King on Tuesday 15 May and, by the following morning, Khalil’s troops had taken control of this section of the outer battlements.

The outerwalls from Acre were breached
The outerwalls from Acre were breached

With panic rising in the city, women and children began to evacuate by ship. The sultan now prepared the Mamluks for a full-strength frontal assault through the breached Tower of the King, towards the inner walls and the Accursed Tower. At dawn on Friday 18 May 1291, the signal for the attack began–the thunderous booming of war drums that created ‘a terrible, terrifying noise’–and thousands of Muslims began racing forward.

Battle on the walls
Battle on the walls

Some threw flasks of Greek fire, while archers loosed arrows ‘in a thick cloud that seemed to fall like rain from the heavens’. Driven forward by the overwhelming

Sack of Acre
Sack of Acre

force of this onslaught, the Mamluks broke through two gates near the Accursed Tower and began rushing into the city proper. With Acre’s defenses punctured, the Franks tried to make a last desperate stand to contain the incursion, but one eyewitness admitted that attacking the Muslim horde was like trying to hurl oneself ‘against a stone wall’.

In the thick of the fighting, the Templar Master William of Beaujeu was mortally wounded when a spear pierced his side. Elsewhere, John of Villiers, master of the Hospital, took a lance thrust between his shoulders. Grievously injured, he was dragged back from the walls.

Before long, the Christian defenders were overrun and the sack of Acre began. One Latin, then in the city, wrote that the ‘day was terrible to behold. The ordinary people of the city came fleeing through the streets, their children in their arms, weeping and despairing, and fleeing to sailors to save them from death’, but hunted down, hundreds were slaughtered and abandoned infants were said to have been trampled under foot.

Siege of Acre mass execution
Siege of Acre mass execution

Abu’l Fida confirmed that ‘the Muslims killed vast numbers of people and gathered immense amounts of plunder’ once Acre fell. As the Mamluks surged through the city, masses of desperate Latins tried to escape in any remaining boats, and there was utter chaos at the docks. Some got away, including King Henry and Otho of Grandson.

Half dead, John of Villiers was carried to a boat and sailed to safety. But the Latin patriarch fell into the water and drowned when his overburdened craft became unstable. Elsewhere, some Latins chose to remain and face their fate. Khalil’s troops found a band of Dominican Friars singing ‘Veni, Creator Spiritus’–the same crusader hymn intoned by Joinville in 1248 – in their convent, and butchered them to a man.

The end battlesMany Christians sought to take refuge in the fortified compounds of the three main Military Orders, and some managed to hold out for days. The robust Templar citadel was eventually undermined by sappers and collapsed on 28 May, killing the Templars within. Those sheltering in the Hospitallers’ quarter surrendered on promise of safe conduct from Khalil, but Muslim chronicles testify to the fact that the sultan deliberately broke this promise, leading his Christian prisoners out of the city and on to the surrounding plains.

Almost exactly one hundred years earlier, Richard the Lionheart had violated his own pledge of clemency to Acre’s Ayyubid garrison, executing some 2,700 captives. Now, in 1291, Khalil herded the Latins into groups and ‘had them slaughtered as the Franks had done to the Muslims. Thus Almighty God was revenged on their descendants.’

John of Villiers
John of Villiers

Acre’s fall was a final and fatal disaster for the Latin Christians of Outremer. Recalling the city’s sack, one Frankish eyewitness who fled by boat declared that ‘no one could adequately recount the tears and grief of that day’. The Hospitaller Master John of Villiers survived to pen a letter to Europe describing his experiences, although he admitted that his wound made it difficult to write:

I and some of our brothers escaped, as it pleased God, most of whom were wounded and battered without hope of cure, and we were taken to the island of Cyprus. On the day that this letter was written we were still there, in great sadness of heart, prisoners of overwhelming sorrow.

For the Muslims, by contrast, the glorious victory at Acre affirmed the efficacy of their faith, sealing their triumph in the war for the Holy Land. One witness described in amazement how, ‘after the capture of Acre, God put despair into the hearts of the other Franks left in Palestine’.

Christian resistance crumbled. Within a month, the last outposts at Tyre, Beirut and Sidon had been evacuated or abandoned by the Franks. That August, the Templars withdrew from their strongholds at Tortosa and Pilgrims’ Castle. With this, the days of Outremer–the crusader settlements on the mainland Levant–were brought to an end.

The Most Crazy History of Ancient Acco (Acre)

Acre or Akko or Acco
The current Acre or Akko or Acco
Heracles
Heracles

Acre, or Acco has really a crazy history and one of the many reasons for that is because Acre is so very old, continuously inhabited since the early Bronze Age (c. 2000-1550 BCE) some 4000 years ago. In Egyptian records, it is mentioned in the Execration Texts, the First Campaign of Thutmose III and the Amarna Letters (ca. 1800 BCE), and today what Acre means is a coastal city with a small harbor and loads of tourism and an absolute crazy history with too many conquers and defeats to count.

In the start of its existence as city, Greek mysteries were at work here. The Greeks referred to the city as Ake, meaning “cure”. According to the Greek myth, Heracles found curative herbs here to heal his wounds. Josephus calls it Akre.

Acre was given to the Tribe of Asher, but ‘poor’ Asher failed to take it(Judges 1:31). Then it was given to Hiram by Solomon (I Kings 9:11-13). If that was not enough, Assyrian monarch Sennecherib took Acre, and another Assyrian monarch Ashurbanipal took it from Sennecherib.

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great

In 333 B.C., it fell to Alexander the Great, but the city fell under Egyptian sovereignty in 261 B.C., and was renamed Ptolemais after Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. In 219 B.C., the city fell under Syrian sovereignty. The violent history of the port city took a break until 65 B.C.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra

The city was captured by Alexander Jannaeus, Cleopatra and Tigranes the Great. Alexander Jannaeus was the King of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC., who married the wife of his dead brother, was cruel and expanded the kingdom with a bloody civil war. Cleopatra was the last active pharaoh of Egypt, after her death Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire. Tigranes the Great was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state east of the Roman Republic. And who said that history is boring, huh?

Herod the Great

In that year the port city was part of the Roman empire under Pompey, when it became a Roman colony where army veterans were settled and built a Roman naval base. Here Herod the Great and Octavian (Jewish Historian for the Romans) met together and made their peace.

After some time of rest for the poor city, it became suddenly the focus point because of the first Jewish revolt. In fact, Acre is the city, where the actual first Jewish revolt started. In A.D. 66, it was sacked by the Jews in reprisal for the slaughter of the Jews in Caesarea.

The Roman reaction on the Jewish sacking of the port city didn’t sit well by the Roman empire, and the Romans made their headquarters here for the war in the First Jewish Revolt.

First Jewish Revolt
First Jewish Revolt

By the year 190, it had its own bishop. In the Byzantine Period, it became largely Samaritan and was named Samaritiki. In the year 614, the city was taken by the Persian Conquest. In the year 636, it became part of the Arab Conquest.

Baldwin I
Baldwin I

In 1104, the Crusaders took it under Baldwin I who renamed it Saint Jean d’Acre after Joan of Arc and the city often was called Acre – The Crusaders also turned it into a naval base. But it took the Crusaders 4 years of siege of the city to do that. The city provided the Crusaders with a foothold in the region and access to vibrant trade that made them prosperous, especially giving them access to the Asiatic spice trade.

After the Crusader stronghold of Jerusalem fell to the Arabs, it became the Crusader capital and main port for the Mediterranean and various orders set up their centers. The centers were The Knights Templars, The Teutonic Order, Order of Saint Lazarus and the Order of the Knights of Saint John – Hospitallers. The good thing out all of it was that they allowed the Jews to live there too (which was different then normal those times).

Saladin
Saladin

The Crusader centers were filled with proud men, who would die for their order they belonged to. In the beginning, the Crusaders  seemed to be unstoppable and ‘waltzed’ through any defense. Because of politics and betrayal, the Crusader centers were serious weakened.

Saladin came and conquered in the most unusable and unconventional ways possible in ancient and modern warfare. In 1187 Acre was taken by Saladin. In 1191 the Crusaders came back and took the city back under Richard the Lionhearted of England and Philip Augustus of France. In 1192, it became the capital of the Crusader Kingdom because they couldn’t take Jerusalem.

In the times of the Crusaders and Saladin, unusable strategies were applied in the battles about Acre. The city was occupied by Arabs, who were surrounded by Crusaders, who laid siege surrounding the city. Saladin came and surrounded the Crusaders, who surrounded the city. This continued for many years, until the Arabs within Acre fell and the Crusaders managed to penetrate the city and could stop Saladin of attacking the city.

Mameluke
Mameluke

In 1291, the mother of all battles occurred and the Crusaders were defending their last stronghold against Sultan Khalil el Ashraf (Mameluke). In Acre, there were more then 12,000 knights and they swore to fight till the last man against the ‘Arab hordes’.

And that’s exactly what they did. Even when many Crusaders were wounded, they would normally be spared by the Arab armies if they surrendered, but they choose to continue to fight until their last breathe. Many Crusaders were praying while they were fighting. Many of them were in a trance, trying to kill one attacker after the other while singing psalms. It scared the Arab armies to their core because of the eerie and sinister sound the Crusaders made.

After the terrible battle was finally over, Acre and the surroundings were covered by thick layers of the dead and a deadly quiet ruled the city and surroundings; only seven Crusaders survived. Many Arab soldiers who also survived this massive battle spread the stories of the terrible deeds of the Crusaders, who managed to kill more then 29,000 Arab soldiers in this battle. It seemed for the Arab soldiers and populations there there was a curse on the land and city. Their victory tasted more then bitter.

For hundreds of years everyone avoided to visit the city and the lands surrounding it and everything laid in ruins and stayed like that. Many locals were telling that they could hear the eerie quiet voices still singing the psalms of those who were killed in that terrible battle.

And after 458 years, Bedouin Sheikh Dehar el-Omar happened. Dehar el-Omar was the administrative head of northern Palestine in the mid-18th century, while the area was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire. He managed to bring the cities Tiberias, Arraba, Nazareth, Deir Hanna together under his rule and finally added Acre to his list.

He built fortifications, but not really rebuilt to city. For this, he invited the Jews to join him, which they did by mass. Bedouin Sheikh Dehar el-Omar hoped that the Jews would rebuild the city to its full splendor, but they didn’t. It looked like the Crusaders curse was still there. The city became a center of the cotton trade instead between Palestine and Europe. Acre had that time a functioning harbor and fortifications surrounding the city with makeshift houses between the ruins of hundreds of years of age. In the mid-1760s, Sheikh Dehar el-Omar refocused on something else and he reestablished the port town of Haifa nearby.

In 1775, Ahmed Pasha the Albanian (El Jazzar) rebuilt the city with its splendor. He also built the Turkish Aqueduct that brought water from the Kabri Stream to Acco. The Crusader’s curse seemed to be broken by El Jazzar, according the locals those times.

In 1799, the French armies arrived under Napoleon, but they manage to withstand the Napoleonic siege. El Jazzar managed that tremendous feat.

The biggest power for the Napoleon’s armies was their artillery, or with other words their heavy cannons. Their strategy was actually first the bombardments, then charge with infantry. They used cavalry as well, but that was useless during sieges. El Jazzar was for sure aware of that, and took care that his men were as protected as possible under the French bombardments; the city walls were thick and strong. The French failure was actually quite simple to explain: the ran out of cannonballs. At the end it would be too costly to attack the city with only infantry and they gave up.

In 1814 Suleiman Pasha became the ruler of Acco and totally rebuilt the aqueduct and it is the aqueduct that is still visible today.

El Jazzar
El Jazzar

During the British Mandate Period, the Citadel was used as the British prison where many of the Jewish freedom fighters such as Jabotinsky were imprisoned and others were hung. In 1947, Jewish commandos breached the walls of the fortress freeing both Jewish and Arab prisoners. In 1948, it was one of the three strategic cities of Galilee which fell to Jewish forces – Captured in May 1948.

From all that history, what’s left to look at?

Ottoman aqueduct to Acre
Ottoman aqueduct to Acre

First, we have the aqueducts in Acre (Helenistic, El-Jazzar and Suleiman Pasha). Those aqueducts gathered its water from Ein Shefa, Ein Giah, Ein Shayara and Ein Zuph.

Acre
El-Jazzar Mosque

Secondly, we have the El Jazzar Mosque, the El Jazzar Fortress (Used by the British as a prison and place of execution for Jewish underground fighters), Saint John’s Crypt, Khan El-Umdan, Tel el-Fukhkhar (Toron), Crusader Subterranean City, Harbor, walls (built by El-Jazzar).

El Jazzar Fortress
El Jazzar Fortress
Saint John’s Crypt
Saint John’s Crypt
Khan El-Umdan
Khan El-Umdan
Tel el-Fukhkhar
Tel el-Fukhkhar
Hospitaller Fortress also known as the Citadel of Acre
Hospitaller Fortress also known as the Citadel of Acre

 

Napoleon
Napoleon

What is interesting is Tel el-Fukhkhar or the Old Testament Tel is this is the oldest part of Acre and since the Crusaders, still important. The Crusaders called it Toron, from here Richard the Lionhearted set out to conquer the city, the French called this the Napoleon’s Hill, because they tried to conquer the city but failed and finally Israeli forces launched their attack on the city in 1948 and succeeded. I guess there was no El Jazzar anymore.

And you, my dear reader, think that’s it? You’re wrong. The current times is nothing else then history for those who study history in the next 50 or 100 years. We are simply part of it.

 

Too romantic for words

Leaving the noise, pollution and traffic of Tel Aviv behind, it was with great enthusiasm and anticipation that I set off with my girlfriend for a weekday mini-vacation at the world-renowned Efendi Hotel situated in the heart of Acre’s Old City.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Old City is an enchanting mix of markets, mosques and vaulted Crusader ruins. As a hub of international trade, this 4,000-year-old port city was once home to the Canaanites, Romans, Crusaders, Turks and the British. Each left their mark. As a result, the city contains many historical structures and sites, such as the Crusaders’ Fortress, the Synagogue of the Ramchal and the Acre Bahá’í Gardens.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

After a very comfortable train ride (approximately an hour and a half) from Tel Aviv to the Acre train station, we took a taxi (normally a fixed rate of NIS 14) to the entrance of the Old City. The driver said the Efendi was about a five-minute walk from there.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

However, we didn’t realize that the Old City was a maze of small streets and alleyways, so naturally we got hopelessly lost. I phoned the Efendi, described our location, and within a few minutes we were rescued by the amiable front desk manager Merav, who graciously escorted us to the hotel.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

THE MOMENT we walked through the doors of the impressive building, we were greeted by Roi, the hotel manager, who emphasized the fact that he wanted us to enjoy ourselves. And that we did.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

Opened in 2012, the Efendi Hotel is the pet project of Israeli restaurateur Uri Jeremias, the chef and owner of the famous seafood restaurant Uri Buri. The renovation of the hotel took eight years, conducted under the watchful eye of the local Antiques Authority.

Craftsmen were flown in from Italy to restore the plaster work and frescoes, which date back to the 19th century.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

The five-star boutique hotel is composed of two adjacent Ottoman- era palaces. The southern structure is the Afifi House, or WIZO House, while the northern structure is the Hamar, or Shukri House, named for a family of musicians that once resided there.

With just 12 guest rooms in the grand hotel, it feels like you’re staying in your own private residence (rooms range from NIS 1,500 to NIS 3,000 a night.) As our room was not ready yet, Merav offered us some chilled date juice and took us on a short tour of the hotel, highlighting an original 400-year-old Turkish bath/hamman, still used for spa treatments, as well as a 900-year-old Crusader-period cellar stocked with the finest Israeli wines. She also told us about the sunset happy hour on the hotel’s rooftop terrace.

Efendi Hotel in Acre
Efendi Hotel in Acre

When we entered our room, the Presidential Suite, it simply took our breath away. A striking blend of old world charm and modern luxury, it felt like stepping back in time while enjoying the most modern amenities. Not only did this 38 sq.m. room offer marvelous panoramic views of the Mediterranean Sea, but it was also beautifully decorated with marble floors, leather upholstered chairs, a writing desk, LCD TV and a king-size bed covered with Egyptian cotton sheets and goose down comforters and pillows.

Continued at the Jerusalem Post Article.

The writer (SHAWN RODGERS) was a guest of the Efendi Hotel. For more information about the Efendi, visit http://www.efendi-hotel.com or call 074-729-9799.

Acre’s Aqueduct

Two thousand years the people were building aqueduct to supply water to the city Acre. And those aqueducts were still in use until 1948! The old city of Acre (Akko) required a steady flow of running water. In the earlier stage of the city, the adjacent Naaman (Belus) river supplied this flow, and was the symbol of the city as minted on the Greek coins.

Aqueduct
Aqueduct

However, when the population grew and the city moved to its present location, a new construction of an aqueduct was required. This water line was built on an aqueduct, bringing in the water from the northern springs of Cabri, about 14 km. away from the city.

The springs are 70 m. high while the city is at sea level, so the slope of the aqueduct is a 5 m. drop along each kilometer (rate of 0.5%). There were several aqueducts constructed over the 2,000 years, running in different routes from Cabri springs to the thirsty city.

Aqueduct
Aqueduct

The oldest line was constructed during the Hellenistic period, while the modern one – which is visible today in various stations along the route – was built 200 years ago and supplied the water until 1948.

On the outskirts of Acre the Ottoman open canal aqueduct was converted to a closed system, based on siphon towers and modular stone units. After passing the walls, the aqueduct supplied the water in several lines in the city, and one of them reached to vast underground cisterns the El-Jazar Mosque in the center of the old city. Several dozens of sebils (water fountains) distributed the waters throughout the Ottoman city.

An early aqueduct was built in the Hellenistic period. From this aqueduct, which was mostly underground, several sections were discovered, including a Kilometer long section near Ness Harim, and two more sections in Kibbutz Lochamei Hagetaot.

A new aqueduct was built in the end of the 18th century AD by Jezzer Pasha, the Ottoman builder of Acre. It was rebuilt by his son, Suleiman, in 1814-1815 AD. The aqueduct was in operation until 1948AD.

The majority of the aqueduct was based on a raised open canal, which was constructed above arches or above a raised sandstone mound. The water flowed down from the higher springs towards the city. The channel, about 0.5 m. wide and 0.8 deep, was coated with plaster.

Aqueduct
Aqueduct

In order to regulate the water flow, a series of siphon towers were built along the path of the aqueduct. The water from the aqueduct was raised up with the pressure of the incoming water, and stored in a pool. The waters then continued with the power of gravity to the next tower and finally to the water outlets in the city. The internal tower pipes were based on round ceramic pipes.

The underground pipes were based on modular stone units that held the pressure of the water and were easy to replace.

Aqueduct
Aqueduct